Saturday, August 22, 2020

Parasitic Plants and Their Hosts: Types and Characteristics

Parasitic Plants and Their Hosts: Types and Characteristics Endurance of one living thing is reliant not just on its capacity to look and use accessible life supporting assets yet additionally upon its sound rivalry for different such imperatives with other living things having a place with either the equivalent or various species. To encourage this, distinctive living things have developed with exceptional resources of capacities to exist, work and show an inclination to multiply to hail their strength on environmental specialty. Mainstream researchers now and again are astounded by the sorts of cooperation in which diverse life structures coincide with one another and furthermore with the environmental factors. In plants, cooperation science has risen as a significant region of research which manages exploring and concentrating such marvels in detail, their system, thinking for associations of plant with plant, creatures, or potentially smaller scale life form. Advancement of another species from a current tribal horde guarantees adjustment to new and progressively productive methods of presence, wherein lesser sources of info are contributed for increasingly potential advantages. One such model is the parasitic plants or epiphytes. Parasitic plants contain 19 families in angiosperms and comprise to around 4,100 species (Nickrent. what's more, Musselman, 2004). Among these with different parasitic propensities, mistletoes are notable as perrenial, polyphyletic gathering of angiospermic aeronautical plant parasites (Devkota, 2005) tainting for the most part have stem or potentially branches, and have a place with families, Viscaceae and Loranthaceae. Mistletoes are considered as a significant part of biodiversity (Watson, 2001; Shaw et al., 2004), and have been evaluated not just because of their remarkable parasitic relationship with their individual has, their development propensities, instrument of seed dispersal yet additionally due to their supernatural therapeutic qualities which incorporates their utilization as thoughtful medication to bring down strange tissue development under malignancy (Kunwar et al.2005). They are dominatingly known to happen on natural product trees. Mistletoes are portrayed by the improvement of a root like absorptive organ called haustorium which frames the host parasite interface and draws supplements from the host conductive tissues to the parasite (Devkota, 2005). Dendrophthoe falcata is a hemi-parasitic plant having a place with the Loranthaceae mistletoes and is considered as the commonest of every single other mistletoe generally happening in India (Parker acnd Westwood, 2009). The sort Dendrophthoe involves around 31 species spread across tropical Africa, Asia, and Australia (Flora of China, 2003) among which 7 species are found in India. The sp. falcata has its hold in India since old occasions and has been being used as conventional legends prescription for different infirmities. In spite of the fact that a parasite causing immense misfortunes to business foods grown from the ground creation, it is thought of and invited as a holy indication of success in hardly any territories of provincial India. Well all inclusive, a significant part of the progressed logical examinations have focused on different mistletoes, for example, Orobanche, Viscum and so forth. These investigations have pointed towards understanding the parasite conduct, sap stream elements at the host parasite interface, concoction creations of botanical organs, structuring fruitful control techniques, assessing restorative possibilities and so on. The current survey will concentrate on the current writing prior endeavors pointing investigation of different logical perspectives related with D.falcata. The audit extensively traces the assortment of studies performed rotating around the host-parasite relationship, morphology and topographical dissemination, and studies pointing towards in vitro foundation and endeavors towards logical avocation of the ethno-restorative properties, and different existing and conceivable control procedures for this mistletoe relative. Morphology and biogeography: Developmentally, mistletoes having a place with Loranthaceae are viewed as more seasoned than those of Viscaceae and since the time their birthplace from thick Gondwanan woods; they have effectively included tropics, subtropics and bone-dry parts on the globe through their dietary rivalry driven triumphs (Devkota et al, 2005). Notes on botanical morphology and embryology in D.falcata have been given by Singh (1952). D.falcata bears dim barks, thick coriaceous leaves variable fit as a fiddle with strong blossoms (Wealth of India. 2002). The blooming inflorescences in D.falcata was recently alluded to as axillary or as creating on the scars of fallen leaves, yet Y.P.S Pundir (1996) confirmed it to be of carefully cauliflorous nature and furthermore advised that it shares crucial comparability to that of Ficus glomerata, F. pomifera and F. hispida. Two of its assortments are across the board in India specifically, var. falcata (Honey Suckled Mistletoe) and var. Coccinea (Red Honey Suckled Mistletoe) recognized by event of white and red blooming, individually (Flowers of India, a World Wide Web asset). An extensive rundown of practically all the species inside the family Dendrophthoe can be profited (from web source at Haustorial polymorphism, leaf mimicry, unstable blossoming, natural product glue mash and so on. Singh, B., 1952. A commitment to the botanical morphology and embryology of Dendrophthoe falcata (L. f.) Ettingsh. Jour. Linn. Soc., Lond., 53, 449. Dendrophthoe homoplastica (mistle-toe) impersonate those of its regular host, Eucalyptus shirleyi. (Robert L. Mathiasen, David C. Shaw, Daniel L. Nickrent, David M. Watson,2008 Plant Disease/Vol. 92 No. 7) Has and have parasite connections: Mistletoes happen generally on woodland, foods grown from the ground have trees specially harboring zones wealthy in biodiversity and subsequently are found unnecessarily on mountain edges gave well ideal light forces and in not many in inclines and fields (Devkota, 2005 and references in that). Mistletoes don't follow a uniform example of conveyance which is influenced by neighborhood situations and affected by propensities for seed scattering avian guests. Host go: Most punctual, B.Singh (1962) detailed that the verdant mistletoe D.falcata is parasitic on more than 300 has in India, Pakistan, Southeast Asia, and northern Australia. India㠯⠿â ½s rich plant biodiversity in 1977 could report elite host go numbering 345 plants defenseless to contamination from this mistletoe (Siva Sarma and Vijayalakshmi 1977) which is a noteworthy number as it adds to its similarly ongoing worldwide record for 401 hosts (Shaw 1993). Till date, D.falcata speaks to the main known mistletoe with the biggest worldwide host run (Calvin and Wilson, 2009) which is constantly and quickly augmenting. Haustoria: Mistleoes are known to shape haustorial structures at the purpose of connection to the host. Among angiosperms, parasitic relationship through the arrangement of haustorial linkages is known to be across the board (Wilson and Calvin, 2006). When all is said in done, haustorial associations among 72 (of the 75) ariel parasitic genera may have a place with both of the four sorts viz., epicortical roots (ERs), catching associations, wood roses, and bark strands (Calvin and Wilson, 1998). ERs may run along the host branches in either bearing shaping haustorial structures at variable interims while à ¯Ã¢ ¿Ã¢ ½unions㠯⠿â ½ happen as single purposes of connection of individual parasites henceforth articulated as lone. In D,falcata on various hosts two of the haustorial sorts have been watched viz., singular associations as on Sugar apple (Annona squamosa), and epicortical roots as on sugar apple (Achras sapota), guava (Psidium guajava), pomegranate (Punica granatum) have been watched. It is obscure about what components choose development of various haustorial types by the v erdant mistletoe on various hosts. The host branches contaminated with D.falcata show a progressive decrease in development and measurement when contrasted with other solid uninfected branches (Karunaichamy et al, 1999). It has likewise been accounted for that the advancement of mistletoe plants on the host tree is a unique procedure which essentially prompts the passing of the host tree and that the entire procedure may keep going for about 10 years (Karunaichamy et al, 1999). It is realized that mistletoes have higher supplement titer than their host (Lamont, 1983; Karunaichamy et al, 1993) and this could likely be ascribed to a seriously higher water (counting disintegrated supplement and development advancing metabolite) take-up rate by the parasite at its haustorium at a point in the host branch in contrast with that in the jutting parallel parts of the bargains (that stretches out after the haustorium). This may render key supplements be inaccessible to the host branches that could quell development post-disease (Stewart and Press, 1990). Be that as it may, in work by Karunaichamy et al (1999) one D.falcata seed for every stem of Azadirachta indica seedling has been tried which has demonstrated the perilous impact on entire plant which again itself is at a youthful seedling stage (so demise of the entire plant could be normal). From an expansive perspective, physiological and metabolic irritations prompted by the parasite in the entire host plant sketched out at the seedling stage derived by the diminished host leaf zone, leaf number, development execution upon contamination can't be associated to that in a completely adult host. (articulation in strong italics) could be defended by that there might be an augmentation in the likelihood of different mistletoe seed dispersals or stretched out reach of haustorial structures to different parts of a similar tree (as we found in Guava) that may potentially prompt a steady consumption of key metabolites (subsequently bringing down a basic edge titer for the equivalent) required for development of the host plant out and out. On the other hand however obscure, it may likewise be conceivable or still obscure if the hemi-parasites disperse any obscure metabolite in to the host xylem at the purpose of grapple arrangement that may repress development and digestion in the host㠯⠿â ½s axillary meristems and the entirety

Thursday, July 16, 2020

Know Money, Win Money! Chicago Auto Show (Part 2)

Know Money, Win Money! Chicago Auto Show (Part 2) Know Money, Win Money! Chicago Auto Show (Part 2) Know Money, Win Money! Chicago Auto Show (Part 2)You didn’t think the Know Money, Win Money road trip was over, did you? Well, it’s not exactly a road trip. More of a train ride over to the convention center where the auto show was taking place. But once we were there, we started revving our engines!And by revving our engines, we mean walking around and asking people questions about the financial side of cars and then giving them money if they answer those questions correctly. Now buckle up, and let’s put the pedal to the metal!Cars vary in price from expensive to ridiculously expensive. But how expensive was the most expensive car ever sold at auction? One million dollars? Two million dollars? Three million dollars? We’ll save you some time and just let you know that it was a measly 38 million dollars. If you just cut that expensive Starbucks latte out of your budget, you’d be able to afford this car in only 7,600,000 daysâ€"or just a little under 20,822 years. And if youâ €™re wondering No, it wasn’t some sort of magic flying car. It was a 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO, which, while really pretty, might not be your most affordable auto option.Our other question on this particular outing concerned miles. No, not the landmark jazz musician Miles Davis. The measurement of distance! Specifically, do you know how many miles the average American drives each year? It’s 13,500. That’s around half the distance it would take to drive around the Earth at the equator. Assuming you had a car that could also be a boat and drive over mountains. Or through mountains. Maybe the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO can drive through mountains!We just checked, and not only can it not, but we now owe 38 million dollars. Whoops!Anyway, keep your tank full, because we’ll be bringing you another Know Money, Win Money before you know it!In the meantime, check out some of our other recent episodes:Episode 17: Winter Brewfest (Part 2)Episode 16: Chicago Auto ShowEpisode 15: Con Alt Delete (P art 2)Where would you like to see us go in future episodes? We want to hear from you! You can  email us, or you can find us on  Facebook  and  Twitter

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Biblical Creationism versus Scientific Origin Essay example

Commonly, religious discussion turns to the subject of origins. There are two reasons for this: firstly, there are those with a literal or semi-literal interpretation of the Bible (or other relevant holy book) who remain convinced that the world was created in the recent past looking more or less as it does today. Obviously, this issue must be resolved before the existence or nature of the deity can even begin to be discussed! Secondly, even those with the more common, nonliteral interpretation of the creation story often use arguments that arent valid to insist on direct interference by a deity at one or more points in the past. And while thanks to its flexibility this tinkering God theory cannot be ruled out to the same degree as†¦show more content†¦Age of trilobites. Mesozoic (245-65 Mya): Middle epoch; from the Permian extinction until the K-T (dinosaur) extinction. Age of dinosaurs. Cenozoic (65-0 Mya): Recent epoch. Starts with the K-T extinction and continues today. Age of mammals. Subject 1: Evolution and the Origins of Life The most immediate question one can ask regarding origins is where humans - and, for that matter, other life forms - came from. The secular world has long since identified evolution as the theory that best answers this question. The theory of evolution is also the target of the vast majority of creationist attacks, probably because they find the idea of humans stemming from lower life forms particularly abhorrent. Many of the criticisms are dated or irrelevant; others are outright falsehoods. In any event, with very few exceptions they refer to the same categories of evidence as supporters of evolution do but draw different interpretations, generally using arguments that are either based on a minority of cases but are refuted by many others, based on false premises, or philosophically unacceptable. Ill try to address in advance all of them below. Hierarchal pattern of structural similarities and differences between organisms The oldest and most general line of evidence for large-scale evolution (macroevolution) is the fact that the outward properties of life are organized in a hierarchal pattern:Show MoreRelatedThe Origin Of Life And Evolution1744 Words   |  7 Pagesand thought with the methodology of science in most human activities has enabled a great deal of scientific and technological advancements for humanity in the last centuries. On the contrary, even though it is nearly 150 years since the Origin of Species (Charles Darwin, 1859), it seems paradoxical that there are still a great significant amount of people who maintain an anti-darwian position on the origin of life and species. A poll done by Gallup Institute in 2004 showed that an approximate of 42%Read MoreThe Big Bang Theory And Evolution1612 Words   |  7 PagesBang theory, but through the Biblical creation theory. Due to their disagreements he had traveled to a different country only to fail to understand his new professor s teaching s The United States of America was founded upon the Christian God but yet teachers are not even allowed to teach about the Biblical creation theory of how Earth was made. They are forced to only teach about the big-bang theory and evolution. What students are being taught today is only a scientific theory and can not be provedRead MoreEssay about The Influence of Religion on Scientific Advancement1737 Words   |  7 Pagesreligious movements have occasionally impeded scientific discovery; however, there is also evidence that scientific progression has been aided by religious ideology. By examining both the negative and positive roles religion has played in history, modern times, and the overall area of morality, one can determine the true extent to which faith hinders scientific advancement. The Catholic Inquisitions exemplify one area in which religion has impeded scientific advancement, particularly in reference toRead MoreEvolution Through the Influence of God1605 Words   |  7 PagesControversy of the origin of life has increased. People feel evidence is necessary to determine a faith and many fear going against the word of God or nature of science. These people have established their own â€Å"religion† or belief called the intelligent design theory. Through a combination of scientific evidence and Biblical moralities, the intelligent design theory was established to accommodate believers in the divine Christ and the theory of evolution. This group believes that evolution is occurringRead More Creation Versus Evolution - Both Arguments Can be Right Essay4913 Words   |  20 Pages Creation Versus Evolution â€Å"Creation Versus Evolution.† What’s wrong with this title? Read it to yourself a few times, and then answer that question. We’ve all heard of the argument. Creationism, the idea that God created all the species as they appear today, versus Evolutionism, the idea that all life evolved from simple bacteria to all the species that appear today, is a familiar controversy. Ever since Darwin first published the Theory of Evolution in his controversial 1859 book The OriginRead MoreEssay on Creation vs. Evolution in the Public Schools1342 Words   |  6 Pagesneither opinions’ palpability can be firmly upheld through scientific manners. Since science can only prove hypotheses that are testable and based on current observations, neither creation nor evolutionary concepts can be proven with irrefutable evidence. However, regardless of the inability to prove either concept, most public school systems promote evolution as a scientific fact. Many students who lack firm beliefs about the origin of life believe what they are taught without giving any personalRead MoreThe Debate Between Evolution and Creationism1648 Words   |  7 Pagesthe question was posed as to what is the debate between creationism vs. evolution consist of, the thought that it is ‘â€Å"God did it† vs. â€Å"Natural processes did it,†Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ (Scott, 2004) may arise. Science cannot absolutely prove or disprove Creation or Evolution. Yet scientist and the remainder of society use creationism and evolution to prove our existence. Creationist believe in the Christian account of the origin as recorded in Genesis. Creationism is the belief that statements such as â€Å"In the beginningRead MoreDefending Evolution And Its Importance1286 Words   |  6 Pagesdefinition of creationism is the belief that the universe and living organisms originated from specific acts of a divine creation, as a biblical account, rather than natural processes such as evolution. Creationism is perhaps one of the biggest roadblocks that divides the educational system; it prevents the teaching of biological evolut ion because evolution is inconsistent with creationist ideals. Thus many court cases and debates have been devoted to the topic of creationism versus evolution. TheRead MoreThe Creationism Question Essay1829 Words   |  8 PagesIn a historical context, creationism versus the theory of evolution has always been a hotly contested subject, one of the major breakthroughs being when Darwin publicized his theory of evolution. When Darwin published his theory of evolution in 1859, his book was considered a major technological breakthrough at that time. The seeming â€Å"proof† that a God didn’t exist created a catalyst, where creationism was replaced with an almost atheism, because the existence of evolution counteracted society’sRead MoreEssay on Creation’s Contest with Evolution2006 Words   |  9 Pagesthe largest controversies in todays public school systems: should creationism still be taught in public schools? In the trial, Clarence Darrow argued that teaching creationism in public schools defies the separation of church and state (which is pulled from the first amendment). Darrow moved on to say that evolution does not disobey the first amendment. The trial denied all public schools the right to teach creationism-a belief that humans were created by a higher being-although evolution

Information Free Essays

The term data refers to qualitative or quantitative attributes of a variable or set of variables. Data, which is the plural of datum are typically the results of measurements and can be the basis of graphs, images, or observations of a set of variables. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of abstraction from which information and then knowledge are derived. We will write a custom essay sample on Information or any similar topic only for you Order Now Raw data refers to a collection of numbers, characters, images or other outputs from devices that collect information to convert physical quantities into symbols that are unprocessed. The data being collected by Freeway Ford pertaining to the dates when cars were purchased and the names of the owners are just numbers and characters, and as my definition of Information below will show, the inability of Freeway Ford to translate this data into anything meaningful renders it short of being described as information. Information, on the other hand, is raw data that (1) has been verified to be accurate and timely, (2) is specific and organized for a purpose, (3) is presented within a context that gives it meaning and relevance, and which (4) leads to increase in understanding and decrease in uncertainty. The value of information lies solely in its ability to affect a behavior, decision, or outcome. A piece of information is considered valueless if, after receiving it, things remain unchanged. In the case of Freeway Ford, if the company had been contacting customers about routine maintenance with the data it had collected about the purchase dates of cars and the names of their owners, and if the company had further followed up three to four years later, when car owners are generally known to be ready to trade in their cars to try and get them to do trade-ins with Freeway Ford, the data they had collected would have translated into something useful, something that could change the way business was being done, and would have information. How to cite Information, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Sarah Osorio MCHS Essays - Indian Religions, Buddhism, Religion

Sarah Osorio MCHS Jae/Final Project 12/5/16 The Principles of Buddhism Buddhism is a widely followed religion by many countries. It was founded about 2,500 years ago by an Indian prince named Siddhartha Gotama. The prince grew up in northeast India, in a place which is known today as Nepal. The prince was born around 563 BCE , to King Sudhodana and Queen Maya. The prince lived in a palace with his family, which was gifted to him by his father. As Siddhartha matured, he became known as the Buddha, which means the enlightened one . Buddhism is derived from Hinduism, but there are still many differences. For example, Hindus follow polytheism, while Buddhists follow atheism. Also, Hinduism has the caste system, which is based on skin color and wealth. The reason Hinduism and Buddhism have such a strong relationship is because the in the area in which Buddhism was born, there were many practicing Hindus. They also have things in common such as reincarnation, they both believe in Nirvana, and they both believe that life is suffering. As the religion evolved, people interpreted things Siddhartha said in two different ways. These are known as Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism. Theravada teaches its followers to worry more about themselves than others and that reaching N irvana is their ultimate goal in life. Nirvana is similar to heaven for Buddhists. In Nirvana, there is no suffering, desire, or sense of self. Unlike Mahayana, they strive for wisdom first, meaning they strive to be as open minded and well informed as the Buddha. While Mahayana teaches to always put others needs before one's own needs, Mahayana believes that compassion is the highest virtue. Specifically, caring and being empathetic towards others is the best quality to have and shows great humbleness. While the people who follow Theravada have the ultimate goal to reach Nirvana for themselves, the followers of Mahayana strive to help the people around them reach Nirvana. Although Buddhism has these two different views, they both believ e in the four noble truths and the 8 fold path. These are guidelines that tell Buddhists how to live their lives. The 8 fold path teaches people to always have respect for one another and to focus on what is important . Such as having right intention, understanding, and action. The 4 noble truths teach you that although life is suffering, it always has an end. Buddhist's have two ways of looking at the belief system, both with a different perspective on life, but the belief system of Buddhism and the Buddha are selfless. Siddartha Gotama, the Buddha, made sure that all beings were taken care of even if it meant damaging his own relationships. One day the prince came across a white swan that was injured, he saw the bird and immediately began to help it. For example, "He said that he had saved the swans life, and therefore it belonged to him" (3). This shows that the prince is selfless because he didn't care about the fact that the swan technically belonged to his cousin, only that he was able to save it. Although it might have angered and hurt his cousin, the prince was more worried about the fact that the swan was injured and was willing to risk anything to save it. Both boys wanted the bird so badly that they took it to the court, but as expected Siddartha won and got to save the bird's life. In following the Buddha's example , Mahayana Buddhism teaches its followers to help all members of the community and to put others before themselves. According to the class lecture on November 14, 2016, the Mahayana version asks its followers to hold off on entering Nirvana, "To help all others...enter first . " Siddhartha shows this when he goes on his journey to cure people's fear of old age, disease, and death. Although this took a great toll on his body and eventually made him extremely thin and endure whatever mother nature had to offer him, he persevered and was focused on the well being of his community and helping put an end to sorrow. He was more worried about the well being of his